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ORTHOPEDIC TESTS AND THEIR MEANINGS

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NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

1. Adam’s Position

Back

If the examiner notes an “S” or a “C” scoliosis, the patient is asked to flex forward and touch his toes slowly.

If the scoliosis straightens, the test is normal and the patient is considered to have functional scoliosis. If the scoliosis stays the same, the test is positive and indicates a pathological scoliosis.

2. Adson’s Test

Thoracic Outlet

The patient takes a deep breath, holds it for 20 seconds, turns his head toward the affected side while the examiner palpates the radial pulse, abducts, extends and externally rotates the arm.

The test is positive if marked weakening, loss of pulse, or increased paresthesia takes place.

3.  Allen’s Test

Vascular

The patient elevates the arm and clenches his fist to shunt blood from the palm, after which the doctor occludes the radial and ulnar arteries. Then, the doctor lowers the arm and instructs the patient to open his hand. The doctor then releases the pressure off the arteries.

Normally, the skin of the palm should flush within three seconds. This test is positive if the skin does not flush entirely or partially within the given period of time.

4.  Anterior Drawer Sign

Knee

The patient is sitting. The hip is flexed. The knee is flexed up to 90 degrees. The examiner pulls the tibia by holding the tibia the thumbs on the medial and lateral joint and pulls the knee forward.

If the knee slides forward from under the femur, this is a positive sign of anterior cruciate ligament laxity.

5.  Apley Scratch Test

Shoulder

The patient reaches behind the head and down the back (which is a combination of abduction and external rotation) and then behind the back and up the spine (combined abduction and internal rotation), bilaterally.

Pain indicates degenerative tendonitis of one of the tendons of the rotator cuff, usually the supraspinatus.

6.  Apprehension Test

Knee

The patient is supine. The knee is extended by the examiner and the medial border of the patella is pushed to the lateral aspect.

If the patient is guarding the patella, by contracting the quadriceps muscles, this is indicative of a tendency of the patella to dislocate or subluxate.

 

       

NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

7.  Apprehension Test

Shoulder

The examiner abducts and externally rotates the shoulder. This is done passively.

When reaching close to 90 degrees of abduction and external rotation, if the patient is apprehensive and resists the examiner, this is indicative of instability of the shoulder and the possibility of dislocation if it is carried out further.

8.  Axial Compression Test

Neck

While the patient is sitting, the examiner forcibly presses downward and laterally on the patient’s head.

This test is positive if pain occurs in the sacroiliac area.

9.  Babinski Reflex

Feet

A sharp object is drawn across the plantar surface of the foot on the lateral aspect, from the calcaneus to the toes.

If the patient flexes all the toes, this is normal. However, with central nervous system lesions, which are associated with the brain damage, the great toe is extended while other toes either plantar flex or splay.

10.  Bechterew’s Test

Low Back

The patient, while sitting, is asked to extend one leg at a time and then both legs.

This test is positive and indicative of disc involvement if pain is produced or aggravated.

11.  Biceps Test

Shoulder

The patient flexes the elbow and the examiner grasps the wrist. The patient then continues to flex the elbow and externally rotate it against resistance.

This test screens for bicipital tendon irritation or instability.

12.  Bilateral Leg Lowering

Low Back

While supine, the patient lowers straight legs from a 90-degree angle to a 45-degree angle.

This test is positive if the legs drop or pain is produced.

13.  Brachial Plexus Tension Test

Neck & Shoulder

While the patient is in the supine position, the examiner passively abducts the patient’s arm just before the pain in the neck and shoulder increases and then passively externally rotates the shoulder joint, again just before the pain increases in the neck and shoulder. Secondly, the elbow is kept in a flexed position and the forearm in a supinated position. The examiner maintains this position and gradually extends the elbow.

If the pain is produced or increased in the neck and shoulder, there is a possibility of C5 through C7 nerve root compression.

       

NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

14.  Braggard’s Test

Back

This test is a continuation of Lasegue’s Test. After pain is produced, the examiner lowers the affected leg to a point that will ease the pain and then dorsiflexes the affected foot.

The test is positive if pain occurs.

15.  Brudzinki’s Test

Back

This test is done with the same mechanism as the straight leg raising and the Kernig’s tests. The patient is instructed to flex his head into the chest and actively raises his leg by flexing the hip until the pain is felt. He then bends this knee until the pain disappears.

This is indicative of meningeal irritation and a nerve root involvement.

16.  Bunnel-Littler Test

Fingers

In order to perform this test, the metacarpophalangeal joint should be extended or hyperextended by the examiner. Also the examiner tries to flex the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint and then release the extension of the meta-carpophalangeal joint.

If by doing so, the PIP is fully flexed, then the result is positive for tightness of the intrinsic muscles. However, if by releasing the extension of the metacarpophalangeal joint or actually flexing it and the PIP cannot be totally flexed, the pathology is in the capsule of the PIP.

17.   Burn’s Test

Low Back

The patient is asked to sit on a low chair or low stool and to bend forward and touch the floor with the palms of his hands.

If the patient says he cannot do this because of low back pain, you may suspect malingering, as flexion in this particular case would not affect the low back specifically. The motion comes primarily from the acetabular cavities.

18.  Cervical Spine 

Compression Test

Neck

See Axial Compression Test

See Axial Compression Test

19.  Chest Expansion

Neck

Chest measurements are taken after the patient, while sitting, inhales and again after exhalation.

A positive test would be less than 1 ½” differential.

20.  Compression Test

Neck

See Axial Compression Test

See Axial Compression Test

       

NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

21.  Costoclavicular Test

Thoracic Outlet

This test may be performed in conjunction with the hyperabduction test. Have the patient bend his head forward and hold his chin as close as he can to his chest, placing tension on the neck muscles. The arms should be extended above the head. Then, check both extremities to see if the pulse has been altered.

The test is positive if there is a weakening, alteration or stopping of the pulse.

22.  Cram Test

Leg

The examiner’s fingers are compressed into the popliteal space.

The test is positive for sciatic nerve irritation if pain is reproduced.

23.  Distraction Test

Neck & Shoulder

While the patient is seated, the neck is distracted by the examiner with both hands, one from the chin and the other from the occiput, making a traction.

This relieves the pain in the neck and shoulder and reveals that the pain has been due to a nerve root compression.

24.  Drop Arm Test

Shoulder

The patient is asked to abduct the shoulder more than 90 degrees and possibly to full abduction, and then he lowers his arms as slow as possible.

If the patient feels a sharp pain in the shoulder upon reaching 90 degrees of abduction or slightly less, and cannot slowly lower the arm, this is indicative of a rotator cuff tear, especially the supraspinatus muscle.

25.  Eden’s Test

Thoracic Outlet

This test is a modified shoulder depression test. The examiner palpates the radial pulse. The patient is requested to take a deep breath and hold it, while pulling his shoulders backward and throwing his chest outward.

This test is positive if a weakening or loss of pulse occurs, or pain increases.

26.  Ely’s Test

Hip & SI Joint

While the patient is prone, the examiner flexes each leg separately, touching the heel to the buttocks.

This test is positive if the patient is unable to complete flexion or if the hip raises off the table on the side being tested.

       

NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

27.  Fabere-Patrick’s Test

Hip & SI Joint

While the patient is supine, the examiners grasps the ankle and bends the knee. He then flexes the thigh, abducts and externally rotates the thigh (placing the external malleolus over the opposite knee) and presses downward on the superior knee. The examiner then removes the external malleolus and extends the leg.

This test is positive if the patient is unable to perform these motions or pain occurs. Inguinal pain indicates hip joint or surrounding muscle pathology.

28.  Farfan Compression Test

Low Back

Have the patient stand and straighten his knees one at a time.

This test is positive if pain occurs or the knee snaps back into a relaxed position.

29.  Finkelstein’s Test

Elbow & Wrist

The patient is asked to make a fist. The thumb should be inside of the fingers and the examiner ulnar deviates the wrist. The pain is elicited in the lateral aspect of the wrist over the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis. This test is also done another way. While the thumb is in a flexed position, the examiner holds the thumb in a flexed position and asks the patient to extend and abduct the thumb. As the patient tries to extend an abduct the thumb, the pain is elicited in the lateral aspect of the wrist.

This test is positive for DeQuervain’s of Hoffman’s Disease which is a tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the thumb.

30.  Flip Test

Back

Have the patient sit on the examination table with his back straight and his legs extended on the table.

If the patient is suffering from a sciatic nerve involvement, he cannot do this. The patient will have to lift the leg and bend the back to take the pressure off the sciatic nerve. If the patient can perform this task but complains of sciatic pain then suspect malingering.

31.  Foraminal Compression Test

Neck

See Axial Compression Test

See Axial Compression Test

       

NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

32.  Gaenslen’s Test

Low Back & SI Joint

While supine, the patient is placed well to the side of the table with one leg flexed upon the abdomen. The opposite leg is laying partially off the table. The examiner then places pressure upon the flexed leg and slowly hyperextends the opposite thigh. Repeat on opposite side.

This test is positive if pain occurs in the sacroiliac area indicating lumbosacral joint area problems.

33.  Gillis’ Test

SI Joint

While the patient is prone, the examiner stabilizes the suspected sacroiliac joint with one hand. With the other hand, the examiner lifts the patient’s leg on the affected side to the limit and then hyperextends the thigh with the knees straight.

This test is positive if pain occurs in the sacroiliac area.

34.  Goldthwait’s Test

Low Back

While the patient is supine, the examiner places one hand under the patient’s lower spine. The patient then raises the leg on the involved side toward the abdomen without allowing the knee to flex.

If pain occurs before the lumbar spine moves, the lesion is in the SI joint. If pain does not appear until after the lumbar spine moves, the lesion is in the lumbosacral region.

35.  Golfer’s Elbow Test

Elbow & Wrist

The examiner asks the patient to resist while he pronates the forearm.

Pain is elicited when the patient resists the force of pronation of the forearm or volar flexion of the wrist.

36.  Gower’s Sign

Low Back

The patient uses hands on the thighs to push his trunk to an erect position when arising from a seated position.

Gower’s sign is often observed in patients with low back conditions.

37.  Grind Test

Fingers

The examiner holds the first metacarpal bone, just below the metacarpal phalangeal joints of the thumb with one hand, applies an axial pressure over the thumb and rotates the thumb.

If this causes pain in the metacarpophalangeal joint or first carpometacarpal, it is indicative of degenerative joint disease of the metacarpophalangeal or metacarpotrapezial joints of the thumb.

38.  Heel-And-Toe Standing Test

Low Back

The patient is instructed to stand on his heels and take several steps forward, turn around and return to his toes.

This test is positive if the patient is unable to perform this test unilaterally or bilaterally.

       

NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

39.  Heel Pounding Test

Hip

The examiner pounds the patient’s affected heel.

This is a good test to screen for possible impacted femur fractures.

40.  Hibb’s Test

Low Back

While the patient is prone, the examiner extends the patient’s thigh on the affected side and rotates the hip joint internally by rotating the leg outward.

Increased pain is considered a positive sign.

41.  Hoover’s Test

Legs

This test is done when the patient states that he cannot lift or raise his legs. The supine patient is asked to lift the unaffected leg or hip while the examiner places a hand under the heel on the affected side. This will establish in the examiner’s mind the amount of pressure the patient normally unconsciously exerts for leverage. The patient is then asked to lift the affected leg or hip while the examiner places his hand under the heel on the unaffected side.

In malingering, the pressure the heel exerts on the affected side will be the same or less than that felt by the examiner on the unaffected side.

42.  Hyndman’s Sign

Back

See Brudzinki’s Test

See Brudzinki’s Test

43.  Hyperabduction Test

Thoracic Outlet

This test may be performed in conjunction with the Adson’s Maneuver. Have the patient raise his arms to a 45-degree angle and then take the pulse.

The test is positive if the pulse becomes weak or diminishes.

44.  Impingement Test

Shoulder

The examiner passively and forcefully forward flexes or elevates the patient’s arm.

Pain or clicking in the shoulder indicates tendonitis of the supraspinatus muscle or overuse injury of this muscle.

45.  Jackson’s Maneuver

Neck

Have the patient sit erect and bend the head obliquely backward, slightly toward the involved side. The examiner then applies a downward pressure on the vertex of the skull.

A positive sign occurs if pain radiates down the arm.

46.  Kemp’s Sign or Test

Low Back

Have the patient stand or sit and bend obliquely backward.

If pain radiates down the side which the patient is bending, the test is positive.

       

NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

47.  Kernig’s Sign

Back

While supine, the patient bends the hip to a 90-degree angle.

If the patient cannot completely extend his knee, the test is positive.

48.   Klein’s Maneuver

Vertebral Artery

While supine or sitting, the patient’s head is hyperextended, rotated, laterally flexed and held for 25-30 seconds.

Dizziness, nausea, fainting, or nystagmus (involuntary eye oscillations) during this test indicates a compromise of the vertebral artery.

49.  Lachman’s Test

Knee

This test is considered to be the best indicator of anterior cruciate ligament laxity. The patient is supine.  The knee is bent between 0 and 30 degrees of flexion. The patient’s femur is stabilized by one of he examiner’s hands and the proximal aspect of the tibia is moved forward.

A positive sign is indicative of anterior cruciate ligament laxity and is demonstrated by sliding of the tibia forward from underneath the femur.

50.  Lasegue’s Sign

Low Back & SI Joint

While the patient is supine, the examiner places his hand under the patient’s heel and the other hand is placed on the patient’s knee with the limb extended. The examiner then slowly brings the leg toward the abdomen.

This test may be considered positive for sciatic nerve root irritation if the maneuver is markedly limited due to pain.

51.  Lateral Epicondylitis Test

Elbow & Wrist

The examiner places resistance against the patient’s extended wrist.

This test is done to determine if there is tenderness over the lateral epicondyle, and/or resistive forces against extension of the wrist, and if extension of the fingers causes pain in the lateral epicondyle.

52.  Lewin’s Test

Low Back

See Farfan Compression Test

See Farfan Compression Test

53.  Libman’s Test

Neck

The examiner presses superior to the inferior tip of the mastoid.

If the patient is unable to tolerate this pressure (which should be gradually increased), the examiner is then able to determine the patient’s pain threshold.

54.  Lidner’s Test

Back

See Brudzinki’s Test

See Brudzinki’s Test

       

NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

55.  McMurray’s Test

Knee

The patient is supine. The knee is completely flexed. The examiner gently externally rotates the foot and tibia and palpates the medial joint line. At the same time, he applies a slight varus force and extends the knee.

At the time of extension, there is a click and possible snap and feeling of pain by the patient, which is indicative of a loose or torn medial meniscus. The same procedure is done with the knee flexed and internally rotated. At this time, a valgus stress is applied and the knee extended, a click, snap or pain in the lateral joint line is usually indicative of a lateral meniscal tear.

56.  Medial Epicondylitis

Elbow & Wrist

See Golfer’s Elbow Test

See Golfer’s Elbow Test

57.  Mennel’s Sign

SI Joint

While the patient is prone, the examiner places his thumbs over the posterior superior spine of the sacrum and exerts pressure. He then slides his thumbs outward and then inward.

Increased tenderness when sliding outward probably indicates calcium deposits. If tenderness is noted on inward movement, it is probably due to strain of sacroiliac ligaments.

58.  Milgram’s Test

Back

The patient is supine and he is asked to lift his legs about two to four inches (20 degrees) off the table for 30 seconds.

If he is able to do so without the production of back pain, there is no pathology in the intrathecal area. However, if pain is elicited in the back, there may be a herniated disc.

59.  Mill’s Test

Elbow & Wrist

The patient is instructed to flex the forearm, making a complete fist and flexing the wrist. Then the patient is asked to pronate the forearm and extend the forearm.

The test is positive if elbow pain is increased.

60.  Minor’s Sign

Low Back

The patient supports his weight on the uninvolved side by placing one hand on the healthy leg and one hand on his back as he rises from a seated position.

Minor’s sign is often observed in patients with low back conditions.

61.  Nachlas’ Test

 Low Back

While the patient is prone, the examiner flexes the knee on the side of the involvement.

This test is positive if pain radiates to either the lumbosacral or sacroiliac area.

62.  Naffziger’s Test

Back

The patient is supine and the examiner compresses over the jugular veins for about ten seconds. While the patient’s face begins to flush the patient is asked to cough.

If this coughing causes pain in the back, the location of pain produced in the back is localized by the patient, which reveals the site of pathology.

 

       

NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

63.  Ober’s Test

Leg

The patient is placed with the unaffected side next to the table. The examiner places one hand on the pelvis and grasps the patient’s ankle lightly with the other hand, holding the knee flexed at a right angle. The thigh is abducted and extended laterally.

This test is positive if the leg remains abducted.

64.  Patella Compression Test

Knee

While the patient is supine, he is asked to contract his quadriceps muscle. This is done by the patient actively pushing the knee down while the examiner holds the patella in resistance to this contraction.

If this causes pain underneath the patella, the patient has chondromalacia of the patella.

65.  Patrick-Fabere’s Test

Hip & SI Joint

See Fabere-Patrick’s Test

See Fabere-Patrick’s Test

66.  Pelvic Compression Test

Pelvis

The patient lies on his side with the affected side up. The examiner places his forearm over the iliac crest and presses downward for approximately 30 seconds.

This test is positive if pain occurs.

67.  Pelvic Rock Test

Pelvis

Pressure is applied on the pelvis while the examiner’s palms are on the iliac tubercles and the thumbs on the anterosuperior iliac spines.

This test is positive if pain is elicited.

68.  Phalen’s Test

Wrist

The examiner asks the patient to volar flex both wrist. Either the examiner can keep the wrist in volar position or asks the patient to contact the posterior or dorsal aspects of the wrists together in a volarflex position. This is done for one minute.

Numbness in the median distribution which is the thumb, index and middle finger or a tingling sensation and paresthesia in this region is indicative of carpal tunnel syndrome.

69.  Philip Sign

Back

This is a combination of straight leg raising or Laseque’s test in sitting and supine positions. When the patient is sitting with legs hanging down the examination table, the lower extremity is extended from the knee.

If  pain is produced in both cases, the test is positive. Otherwise, the examiner should be suspicious of any pathology in the back.

70.  Pincher’s Test

Back

The skin and subcutaneous tissue on both sides of the lumbar spine are pinched lightly.

If the back pain is produced or increased by this maneuver, the response is considered to be positive for a non-organic disease.

       

NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

71.  Posterior Drawer Sign

Knee

The patient is supine. The hip is flexed. The knee is flexed up to 90 degrees. The examiner pulls the tibia by holding the tibia with the thumbs on the medial and lateral joint and pulls the knee forward.

In posterior drawer sign the knee is pushed backward, and if the knee slides posteriorly from underneath the femur, it is an indication of posterior cruciate ligament laxity.

72.  Quadrant Test

Vertebral Artery

See Klein’s Maneuver

See Klein’s Maneuver

73.  Rust’s Syndrome

Neck

The patient grasps the head with both hands when lying down or arising from a recumbent position as a result of a stiff neck.

This test is used to detect neck stiffness.

74.  Shoulder Depression Test

Neck & Shoulder

While the patient is seated, the examiner first depresses the shoulder on the affected side, then laterally extends the cervical spine away from that shoulder.

This test is positive if pain is produced or aggravated.

75.  Sitting Straight Leg

Low Back

See Bechterew’s Test

See Bechterew’s Test

76.  Soto-Hall Test

Back & Neck

While the patient is supine, the examiner places his superior hand under the patient’s occiput and the opposite hand on the patient’s sternum. Then, the examiner lifts the patient’s head to the patient’s sternum while pressing down on the sternum. This puts a progressive pull on the posterior spinous ligaments.

When the spinous process of the injured vertebra is reached, the patient should experience an acute pain over the injured area.

77.  Speed’s Test

Shoulder

See Biceps Test

See Biceps Test

78.  Spinous Percussion Test

Back

While the patient is prone or seated, the examiner uses a reflex hammer with his thumb over the spinous process in question and percusses it.

A positive finding would result in pain or aggravation of the symptoms.

79.  Spurling Test

Back

The patient is prone; the examiner’s thumb presses the paravertebral muscles at various levels.

If sciatic nerve root pain is elicited, the test is positive.

80.  Standing Sign-Of-Four

Low Back

While standing, the patient is asked to place the heel of one foot to the shin of the opposite leg.

This test is positive if the patient is unable to perform this function.

       

NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

81.  Straight Leg Raising (SLR) Test

Back & Legs

The patient is supine on the table and the examiner raises one of the legs with his hand up to 90 degrees. The knee should be extended.

If the pain is elicited in any degree below 80 degrees, then the examiner lowers the leg until the pain disappears and dorsiflexes the foot passively. If the pain is again reproduced in the back or leg, the pathology is due to the sciatic nerve root irritation. Otherwise, it is due to hamstring tightness. Occasionally, the pain is produced in the back and in the other leg, which is on the examination table, and this is called the cross leg or opposite-leg straight leg-raising test.

82.  Tarsal Tunnel Compression Test

Ankle

The examiner wraps a sphygmometer around the ankle and inflates to just above the patient’s systolic blood pressure for 1-2 minutes.

Pain indicates a compromise of the tarsal tunnel.

83.  Thomas’ Sign

Hip

While the patient is supine, the thigh is flexed and bent upon the abdomen.

The patient’s lumbar spine should normally flatten. However, if it maintains its normal lordotic curve, the test is positive. Involuntary flexion of the opposite knee indicates a hip flexion contracture.

84.  Thompson “Squeeze” Test

Ankle

While the patient is prone with the knee flexed, the examiner squeezes the calf muscle against the tibia and the fibula.

The foot should plantar flex. If not, this is indicative of Achilles tendon damage or rupture.

85.  Tinel’s Sign at the Elbow

Elbow

The examiner taps the ulnar groove which is the area between the medial epicondyle and olecranon.

A tingling sensation in the medial side of the forearm to the ring and little finger is a sign of ulnar neuritis or a regional neuroma.

86.  Tinel’s Sign for the Unlnar Nerve at the Wrist

Wrist

This is done by tapping the Guyon’s canal in the medial aspect of the wrist.

A tingling sensation and/or paresthesia in the little and ring finger is a sign of neural entrapment or neuroma or neuritis of the ulnar nerve in the Guyon’s canal.

87.  Tinel’s Sign for the Median Nerve at the Wrist

Wrist

The examiner taps the carpal tunnel at the volar aspect of the wrist.

A tingling sensation and/or paresthesia in the thumb, index finger and middle finger is a sign of carpal tunnel syndrome.

       

NAME

BODY PART

PROCEDURE

INDICATIONS

88.  Traction Test

Neck

See Distraction Test

See Distraction Test

89.  Trendelenburg’s Test

Hip

Have the patient stand on the affected leg, flex the other leg at the knee and raise the knee to the level of the hip.

If the left iliac crest raises, the test is normal. However, if the iliac crest lowers, the test would be positive.

90.  Upper Limb Tension

Neck & Shoulder

See Brachial Plexus Tension Test

See Brachial Plexus Tension Test

91.  Valsalva Test

Neck or Back

The patient takes a deep breath and bears down as if he is straining for a bowel movement.

Pain in the neck, arms, and/or back is a sign of a disc tumor, space occupying lesion, osteophyte or any extradural compression in the lumbar canal or foramen.

92.  Vertebral Artery Test

Vertebral Artery

See Klein’s Maneuver

See Klein’s Maneuver

93.  Waddell Sign

Functional Overlay

The patient is tested for appropriateness of response to tenderness, axial loading, rotation, and straight leg raising in the seated position.

Regional disturbances, overreaction, and inappropriate responses in 3 of the 5 areas of this test suggest functional overlay in patients with back problems.

94.  Well Straight Leg Raising Test

Back & Leg

The patient is in a supine position. The test is performed by elevating and extending the unaffected leg.

The test is positive if there is a reproduction of pain in the affected leg.

95.  Wright’s Test

Thoracic Outlet

The doctor palpates the radial pulse beginning from a downward position and moving the arm through the normal range of motion of the shoulder (180-degree arc).

This test is positive if the pulse diminished or disappears, if there is marked accentuation of pain, or if paresthesia occurs any time during the range of motion.

96.  Yeoman’s Test

SI Joint

While the patient is prone, the examiner stabilizes the suspected sacroiliac joint with one hand. With the other hand, the examiner lifts the patient’s leg on the affected side to the limit and then hyperextends the thigh with the knees bent.

This test is positive if pain occurs in the sacroiliac area.

97.  Yergason’s Test

Shoulder

The patient’s elbow is flexed up to 90 degrees and the elbow is secured to the patient’s thorax. The examiner holds the elbow with one hand and the other hand holds the patient’s wrist. The patient is instructed to resist the forces performed by the examiner. The examiner pulls down the elbow and at the same time tries to externally rotate the shoulder and also supinate the forearm.

If popping in the bicipital grooves and pain is experienced by the patient, this is indicative of instability of the long head of the biceps and/or bicipital tendonitis.

 

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